I changed the following setting under
Project options -> Configuration Properties -> C/C++ -> Code generation -> Use run-time library
from "Multithreaded-Debug-DLL (/MDd)" (which seems to be the default setting!?) to "Multithreaded-Debug (/MTd)".
Now the project using BLAS.lib and LAPACK.lib compiles and links successfully and I can properly execute the generated .exe file!!!
I don't know what exactly the run-time library settings "Multithreaded-Debug-DLL" and "Multithreaded-Debug" do, but it works. Strangely the setting "Multithread (/MT)" does not work (the linker then isn't even able to resolve symbols like getchar() or printf()), even though I am using the release versions of BLAS.lib and LAPACK.lib (instead of the debug version BLASd.lib and LAPACKd.lib)!? Does that have anything to do with each other?
Using BLASd.lib and LAPACKd.lib stills leads to an array of errors during the linking process (non resolvable symbols such as "logf" and "powr8i4" in the "lapackd.lib" and symbols such as "qw32used" and "QWINNiceExit" in "libifcoremt.lib")???