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BLAS (Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms) is a library of routines that implement simple operations on vectors and matrices stored in contiguous regions of memory. There exist vendor (highly tuned) versions of BLAS for all major HPC platforms as well as non-vendor versions such as ATLAS and Goto BLAS.

The effective bandwidth b_eff measures the accumulated bandwidth of the communication network of parallel and/or distributed computing systems. Several message sizes, communication patterns and methods are used. The algorithm uses an average to take into account that short and long messages are transferred with different bandwidth values in real applications.

FFTE: A Fast Fourier Transform Package allows to compute Discrete Fourier Transforms of 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional complex double precision sequences. The supported radixes are: 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8.

HPL is a software package that solves a (random) dense linear system in double precision (64 bits) arithmetic on distributed-memory computers. It can thus be regarded as a portable as well as freely available implementation of the High Performance Computing Linpack Benchmark.

PARallel Kernels and BENCHmarks contains CPU, memory and communication benchmarks. PTRANS (parallel matrix transpose) is one of those benchmarks and is used in HPCchallenge.

The STREAM benchmark is a simple synthetic benchmark program that measures sustainable memory bandwidth (in MB/s) and the corresponding computation rate for simple vector kernels.

The TOP500 project was started in 1993 to provide a reliable basis for tracking and detecting trends in high-performance computing. Twice a year, a list of the sites operating the 500 most powerful computer systems is assembled and released.

The TopCrunch project was initiated to track the aggregate performance trends of high performance computer systems and engineering software. Instead of using a synthetic benchmark, actual engineering software applications are used with real data and are run on high performance computer systems.

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